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Transforming Stem Cells into Diabetes Beaters 干细胞对抗糖尿病

时间: 2017年05月18日 | 作者: admin | 来源: 未知

撰文/播音 Christopher Intagliata

翻译 Meatle

审校 邰伦玥

 

 

One of the great promises of stem-cell biology is to use a patient’s own cells as a template to build a real, working organ or tissue in the lab. One prime example: a treatment fordiabetes by turning stem cells into working pancreatic beta cells, which release insulin. 

干细胞技术的一大运用,就是利用病人的细胞作为模板,在实验室造出一个真正能活体的器官组织。一个典型的例子是,糖尿病一种疗法将干细胞转化为功能正常能产生胰岛素的β胰腺细胞。

"The existing beta cells that our lab and others had created were 90 percent of the way there. But 90 percent still means not functional." Ron Evans, a molecular biologist at the Salk Institute. 

我们的和其他研究组的实验室现存的β细胞能够达到真实细胞的90%。然而90%仍然不足以使到这些测试细胞能够正常起效。索科生物研究所(the Salk Institute)的分子生物学家,龙·埃文斯(Ron Evans)说。

Evans compares the stem-cell-derived beta cells they first made to a darkened room. "If you walk into that room, there may be everything in it that you need to be a complete room, with furniture and chairs and everything else. But it's dark. And the key is: what do you need to turn on the light?"

埃文斯将它们起初制造的β细胞比喻成黑房间。试想一下,那间房子里你生活所需的一切,比如像桌子家具。然而房间里面一片漆黑问题在于,如何灯打开

That light switch, Evans discovered, is a gene—called estrogen-related receptor gamma. Flip it on, and it activates a genetic circuit that ramps up mitochondria production, powers up the cell, and endows the almost-functional beta cells with the ability to sense glucose and release insulin in response.

埃文斯所发现的灯开关”是一段被称为雌激素关联受体γ(estrogen-related receptor gamma)的基因。将它启动就能接通一段基因回路,使到细胞内的线粒体全速运行从而点亮整个房间”——这些接近完全的细胞能够察觉到血糖波动,进而释放出胰岛素。

Evans's team recently used that trick to transform stem cells into beta cells that worked just like they would in a healthy pancreas. When they transplanted those cells into mice with a mouse version of diabetes, blood glucose fell to normal levels in half the rodents. The results are in the journal Cell Metabolism. [Eiji Yoshihara et al, ERRγ Is Required for the Metabolic Maturation of Therapeutically Functional Glucose-Responsive β Cells]

埃文斯的团队使用上述的手法,使到干细胞转化为能像正常胰腺细胞一样工作的β细胞。之后他们将这些细胞移植到患有糖尿病的小鼠身上,这些接受移植的小鼠有半数血糖恢复了正常。该项研究发表在细胞代谢(Cell Metabolism)

Next, Evans says he'll replicate the test in diabetic primates. "Primates get diabetes in a fashion that's very similar to people. So if it works in a primate, very high probability that it's going to work in people." If it does, we might someday replace a shot of insulin with a shot of cells.

埃文斯认为,下一步他将在灵长类身上重复这个实验。灵长类患上糖尿病的方式与人类相当类似因此如果这种疗法在灵长类中行得通,那么这种疗法也有相当大的可能性治愈人类。”若是这样,治疗糖尿病人,有朝一日只需注射一剂细胞,而不是胰岛素。

 

 

原谅链接:

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/transforming-stem-cells-into-diabetes-beaters/