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新人报道 宋娅 [复制链接]

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发表于 2016-3-22 19:50:20 |显示全部楼层
啦啦啦,各位新老实习生们,       我来报道啦!
       宋娅,19,北京体育大学英语专业大二,体大外语系的都是珍宝,哈哈,因为少嘛!

       爱好篮球、跆拳道、慢跑、还有徒步。

       对心理学、教育学、特别是自闭症方面的话题特别感兴趣,

       要是能接触到自己不熟悉的领域,我也是会很开心的啦!

       刚开始翻译,感觉还没有科普文章的那种科普的味道,先贴一篇。

       很高兴能和大家一起玩!!!

      请多多指教!

       正确的时机,全新的开始.pdf (473.11 KB, 下载次数: 4)




      


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发表于 2016-3-22 19:52:10 |显示全部楼层
Is It the Right Time for a Fresh Start?
Help is here for all those faltering New Year’s resolutions
正确的时机 全新的开始
所有难以完成的新年计划都将在这里重获新生。

Around this time of year, I tend to look back at the list of commitments I made in early January: I will exercise more often, spend more time with family, do a better job balancing my personal and professional lives, leave my laptop home when we go on vacation, and so on. And yet, only two months into the New Year, I find I am not doing such a good job. And I am sure I am not alone. On January 1, people around the globe commit with vigor to all sorts of virtuous goals, from losing weight to being a more understanding boss or partner to eating more healthfully to saving more money. And, before too long, most of us find we’re back where we started.

此刻,我回过头去看自己在一月初制定的那些新年计划:加强锻炼、平衡工作与生活、多花时间陪伴家人、度假期间不带电脑等等。然而,仅仅过去短短两个月,这些计划就被我抛在脑后了。我相信像我这样的人肯定不在少数。新年的第一天,世界各地的人们都会怀着最旺盛的热情定下最美好的目标:从健康饮食、减肥成功到积攒更多的钱再到成为更体恤的老板又或是最贴心的伴侣。然而,过不了多久,我们当中的大多数人都会发现自己又回到了原点。

Setting virtuous goals at the beginning of the year can be quite effective, recent research tells us, since the first day of the year is a temporal landmark. Temporal landmarks signal the start of a new, distinct time period — making us feel we can start from a clean slate. They highlight a contrast between current and future goals (which are often different!) and can thus be a relatively simple way to motivate yourself to accomplish your virtuous goals. So, here is the good news: If you feel like you already failed on your resolutions like me, you do not need to wait till December 31 to start fresh. You simply need to identify a good temporal landmark, and give it another shot.

近期研究表明,在新年伊始制定美好的目标是很有效果的,因为一年的第一天是一个里程碑式的时间。这种重要的时间节点标志着与之前截然不同的新阶段的开始,会使我们产生一种重新出发的感觉。同时,它们让当前目的和长远目标(一般不同)产生鲜明的对比,因此这就成为了激励自我、完成目标的一种相对简单的方法。更重要的是:如果你发现自己和我一样,没能完成计划,也没必要等到新一年的开端,你要做的只是找到一个好的“时间里程碑”,重新开始实施计划。

The start of a new year or a new week, a birthday, or a holiday are dates that have something in common: they all stand out as being more meaningful than other days. These temporal landmarks generate “fresh start” feelings that can motivate us to meet virtuous goals, such as exercising regularly, according to research from the behavioral scientists Hengchen Dai (Washington University in St. Louis), Katherine Milkman (University of Pennsylvania), and Jason Riis (University of Pennsylvania).

一项由行为学家戴蘅晨(圣路易斯华盛顿大学)、凯瑟琳•米柯曼(宾夕法尼亚大学)、杰森•瑞斯(宾夕法尼亚大学)实施的研究发现:无论是新年第一天、每周第一天、自己的生日或是假期都比一年中的其他日子更有意义,因此脱颖而出成为了里程碑式的时间。这些时间点会让人产生一种重新出发的感觉,从而激励我们去实现那些美好的目标,比如说定时锻炼身体。

Here is why temporal landmarks work. They highlight the gap between our current behavior (such as watching TV every night or overspending) and our rosier, desired future behavior (working out every night or saving more). We all regularly face a conflict between choices that mainly provide instant gratification and pleasure (relaxing and watching TV) and more virtuous ones that primarily provide longer-term benefits (working out and eating better). Mounting research evidence, from both psychology and economics, suggests that we often choose what we impulsively want over what we should choose given our long-term goals and interests. (In fact, I wrote an entire book on how easily we get sidetracked while trying to reach our goals!)

“时间里程碑”的作用原理是这样的:它把我们当前的行为(熬夜看电视、过度消费)和我们期望中自己的更加上进更加美好的形象(每天努力工作,储蓄更多)截然分离。我们不断面临着这样抉择:是选择当下的满足与安逸还是为了长远利益而在此刻更加努力。然而,越来越多的心理学和经济学有关研究都在不断证明:人们大多数时候都一时冲动地选择了短期利益而不是做出有利于自己长远目标和利益的行为。(我甚至还写了一本书来专门论述在实现目标的过程中我们有多容易分心!)

One way to boost our commitment to our goals is to make a clear contrast between our present shortcomings and our hoped-for outcomes. For instance, research has found that when people who intended to quit smoking first wrote about their desired personal future and then wrote about the negative aspects of their current reality, they were more effective at kicking the habit than people who only wrote about their imagined future success. As long as temporal landmarks highlight a contrast between a desired future state and present reality, and we do not feel close to our ideal state already, then these reflections motivate us to act on our goals.

将当前缺点和预期成果进行对比不失为是增强我们对目标实现的决心的一个好办法。研究表明:那些在戒烟前同时写下个人想实现的目标和不乐观现状的人往往比那些只写下成功图景的人更容易戒烟成功。只要我们利用里程碑式的时间将现实和理想分开进行对比,杜绝马上就会完成目标的幻觉,那么我们就会被不断激励,为了目标而行动起来。

But there is more. Temporal landmarks also give us an opportunity to wipe the slate clean, a feeling that inspires beneficial behavior, at least in the short term. Turning the page on a new year, month, or even week allows us to attribute our negative traits and failures to our past selves. By blaming our past selves, we can create and better maintain a positive image of our current selves. We feel more motivated and empowered to work hard toward reaching our goals when we feel like our past failures are behind us, and our future success is ahead of us—what Dai and colleagues call “the fresh start effect.”

不仅如此,“时间里程碑”还能给我们从头再来的机会,这种从头再来的感觉至少在短期内可以激发有益的行为。进入新的一年,新的一月甚至新的一星期都能让我们把缺陷和失败留给过去。通过对过去不足之处的反思,我们就可以让现在转变为并保持在一个更加积极的状态。当发现过去的失败已经被甩在身后而成功正在前方招手时,我们就会更加积极向上、满怀力量地为实现目标而努力----这就是戴教授和她的同事们所谓的“新生效应”。


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发表于 2016-3-22 19:52:29 |显示全部楼层
Temporal landmarks don’t even have to be particularly significant. Not surprisingly, the researchers found a surge in Google searches for the word “diet” close to the New Year. But they also found that searches for “diet” also peaked at the beginnings of weeks (Mondays) and months (March 1, etc.), and the day after national holidays (including Thanksgiving and Labor Day). Dai and her colleagues also found that we are more likely to follow through on our goals if we begin working on our commitments (such as a diet) on a Monday rather than a Thursday. The bottom line? Being strategic about when to start changing our behavior (usually for the better) matters.

“时间里程碑”甚至用不着必须是十分重要的时间。研究者发现在临近新年时,谷歌上对“控制饮食”这个关键词的搜索人次有一个大幅度提升。当然,这是意料之中的事,然而这种数量的上升在每周或每月的第一天、重要节日之后也都有体现却是我们没有想到的。戴教授和她的同事们还发现,在周一开始实施计划,我们坚持下去的可能性比在一周中的其他任何一天开始都要大得多。我们完成目标的要旨就是要更加有策略性地决定何时开始改掉自己的不良行为。

Fortunately, we tend to gravitate toward such landmarks naturally. In one study, Dai, Milkman, and Riis had participants describe a personal goal that they were planning to pursue in the near future. Next, they were offered a chance to receive a customized email to help remind them of their goal and how to accomplish it. When given a choice of dates, they were far more likely to choose to receive the email on a particular Thursday in March when it was identified as a temporal landmark, namely the first day of spring, than when it was not identified as a unique day on the calendar. The researchers also found that university students were far more likely to visit the university fitness center at the beginning of a new week, at the beginning of the semester, or right after their birthday.

幸运的是,人们自然而然地就会被这种里程碑式的时间所吸引。在戴教授、米柯曼教授和瑞斯教授的其中一项研究中,他们让参与者描述自己近期内打算完成的一个目标,然后给所有参与者提供一个收到邮件的机会,这个为他们量身打造的邮件将会提醒他们各自的目标并指导他们该如何完成。当问及这封邮件发送的时间时,参加者的选择就很好的说明了这个问题——人们会自然而然被里程碑式的时间所吸引:当在日历上标注三月的某个周四是春季的第一天,很多人都选择了这一天作为收件日,但在标注之前,这一天对于他们来说则没有什么特殊的意义。研究者还发现:大学生们也更倾向于在每周一、一学期的开端或者生日之后去学校的健身中心锻炼。

This research suggests that we do not need to wait until the beginning of the year to get off the couch more often. The start of a month, your birthday, or the first day of work after a holiday can be equally motivating. Even more interesting, the fresh-start effect can be more powerful than other factors we would expect to influence our success. For example, the increase in a person’s probability of going to the gym immediately following her birthday is equivalent to the effect of keeping the gym open for two extra hours.

这项研究表明,我们根本不需要等到新年伊始才决心少看点电视。每月的第一天,你的生日或者是假期后开始工作的第一天和新年有着同样激励人心的作用。更有意思的是,这种“新生效应”的作用比我们所以为的影响成功的其他因素更加显著。比如,在生日后立刻决定健身和健身房延长开放时间两小时对于激励人们多去健身房锻炼有着相同的效果。

The calendar offers us plenty of opportunities throughout the year to make a fresh start. When we find our commitment to our New Year’s resolutions drifting, we may be able to revive them by focusing on a new “fresh start” date. I find it refreshing to think that by picking the right date to revisit my commitments, I can trigger the same sense of dissociation from the past that I felt on New Year’s Day and begin to move closer to my virtuous goals again. I hope you will join me in recommitting to those broken resolutions. The first day of spring is coming right up.

一年中我们可以在日历上找到大量里程碑式的时间来重新出发。当发现完成新年计划的决心有所动摇时,可以给自己找一个“新生日期”来重建信心。而且每当想到可以通过寻找一个正确时间的方式来重新实现目标时,我就又重新充满了力量。这让我体会到一种在新年时和过去告别时一样的心情,也让我离自己的目标越来越近。希望你也能和我一样重新投入到那些没有完成的目标中去,更何况春日的第一天马上就要来啦,还等什么呢?

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发表于 2016-4-21 21:46:31 |显示全部楼层
小妹子居然才大二……

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发表于 2016-4-23 16:35:26 |显示全部楼层
颜磊 发表于 2016-4-21 21:46
小妹子居然才大二……

哈哈,难道看起来像研二......

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发表于 2016-4-24 09:21:47 |显示全部楼层
宋娅 发表于 2016-4-23 16:35
哈哈,难道看起来像研二......

像博二哈哈哈哈

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发表于 2016-4-29 19:30:47 |显示全部楼层
颜磊 发表于 2016-4-24 09:21
像博二哈哈哈哈

哇,好开心,我就知道我看起来是一副知识渊博的样子

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